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过敏性鼻炎的病因是怎么回事

2019-03-26 10:48

  当鼻腔患上过敏性鼻炎之后,会另患者的鼻腔健康受到了危害,而且会让患者十分苦恼,大家应当多了解一些过敏性鼻炎的知识,特别是要清楚的认识此病的引发原因才可以,下面上海宏康医院医生就带大家认识一下诱发该病出现的原因有哪些呢。

  花粉。并不是所有植物花粉都能引起发病。只有那些花粉量大、植被面积广、变应原性强并借助风来传播的花粉才最有可能成为变应原。由于植被品种的差异,不同地区具有变应原性的花粉也不同。如北欧以桦树和梯牧草的花粉为主;北美则以豚草为主;日本以杉树花粉为主;我国幅员广阔,各地区致敏花粉不尽一致,北方地区以野生蒿类花粉为主,不过在大江南北均发现豚草,应引起重视。近年有人认为,随着工业化的不断发展,空气中二氧化硫等有害物质浓度增加,可使悬浮于空气中的花粉表面蛋白质结构发生变异,使原本不具变应原性的花粉也具有较强的变应原性。

  真菌。在自然界分布极广,主要存在于土壤和腐败的有机物中。其菌丝孢子皆具有变应原性,但以孢子较强。孢子可借风广泛传播,空气中的数量有时高于花粉,农村高于城市。最常见的真菌种类是单孢枝霉菌属、交链孢霉属(ALTERNARIA)、青霉属、曲霉属和酵母菌属。其中单孢枝霉和交链孢霉有显著季节性,其孢子在空气中数量高峰多在夏季。室内高温和阴暗潮湿有利于真菌生长。室内观赏花花盆中土壤也常成为真菌良好的生长场所。

  变应性鼻炎伴发疾病可分为相同的致病途径(如变态反应)或合并其他疾病(黏膜肿胀,黏液潴留引起的合并感染)。包括哮喘、结膜炎、慢性鼻-鼻窦炎、腺样体肥大、分泌性中耳炎等。变应性鼻炎的存在加重哮喘,大多数哮喘患者患有变应性鼻炎。室外变应原较室内变应原更易引起变应性结膜炎 。抵抗力、免疫力低下:很多鼻炎患者本身体质差,抵抗力和免疫力低下,略受风寒或外源因素的诱发就会发作。炎症治愈困难,细菌一旦进入鼻窦内,就极易存留繁殖,又因鼻窦口小,鼻腔黏膜与鼻窦黏膜口处黏膜肿胀,使鼻窦口阻塞,由于鼻窦的特殊生理结构,致使药物难进其中。

  外源因素的诱发:随着社会的日益发展,空气污染的加剧,化学过敏源的增多,细菌病毒变异,精神紧张,气候的恶化等因素,使感冒多发且迁延难愈,从而使过敏性鼻炎的发病率逐年上升,越发难治。耐药性:在很长一段时间内,医学界针对过敏性鼻炎的治疗一直停留在快速解除症状上,使用一些普通的鼻炎药物,只能暂时性地改变鼻腔通气状况,而对过敏体质没有太大作用,一旦停用,就会再次发作;因药物滥用,使病菌随着鼻炎一次又一次的发作;一次又一次的用药和更换药,不断地变异而具有耐药性,使用一般药物根本无法作用病菌,从而使过敏性鼻炎越来越难治,甚至发展成鼻癌。

  大家了解相关的内容后,认识到了引发过敏性鼻炎出现的因素是什么了,过敏性鼻炎较为多见,而且诱发此病出现的因素也是特别复杂的,提醒朋友们应当关注自己鼻腔的健康,正确了解过敏性鼻炎的病因,展开一些相关的预防才可以。如果您还有疑问的话可以“点击咨询”在线与我们沟通,我们将竭诚为您服务,祝您生活愉快!

远的朋友

  A friend walk in when the rest of the world walks out.

  别人都走开的时候,朋友仍与你在一起。

  Sometimes in life,

  有时候在生活中,

  You find a special friend;

  你会找到一个特别的朋友;

  Someone who changes your life just by being part of it.

  他只是你生活中的一部分内容,却能改变你整个的生活。

  Someone who makes you laugh until you can't stop;

  他会把你逗得开怀大笑;

  Someone who makes you believe that there really is good in the world.

  他会让你相信人间有真情。

  Someone who convinces you that there really is an unlocked door just waiting for you to open it.

  他会让你确信,真的有一扇不加锁的门,在等待着你去开启。

  This is Forever Friendship.

  这就是永远的友谊。

  when you feel blue,

  当你失意,

  and the world seems dark and empty,

  当世界变得黯淡与空虚,

  Your forever friend lifts you up in spirits and makes that dark and empty world suddenly seem bright and full.

  你真正的朋友会让你振作起来,原本黯淡、空虚的世界顿时变得明亮和充实。

  Your forever friend gets you through the hard times, the sad times, and the confused times.

  你真正的朋友会与你一同度过困难、伤心和烦恼的时刻。

  If you turn and walk away,

  你转身走开时,

  Your forever friend follows,

  真正的朋友会紧紧相随,

  If you lose you way,

  你迷失方向时,

  Your forever friend guides you and cheers you on.

  真正的朋友会引导你,鼓励你。

  Your forever friend holds your hand and tells you that everything is going to be okay.

  真正的朋友会握着你的手,告诉你一切都会好起来的。

  And if you find such a friend,

  如果你找到了这样的朋友,

  You feel happy and complete,

  你会快乐,觉得人生完整,

  Because you need not worry,

  因为你无需再忧虑。

  Your have a forever friend for life,

  你拥有了一个真正的朋友,

  And forever has no end.

  永永远远,永无止境。

  13 That's what friends do

  13 朋友就该这么做

  Jack tossed the papers on my desk—his eyebrows knit into a straight line as he glared at me.

  杰克把文件扔到我桌上,皱着眉头,气愤地瞪着我。

  What’s wrong?" I asked.

  怎么了?”我问道。

  He jabbed a finger at the proposal. "Next time you want to change anything, ask me first," he said, turning on his heels and leaving me stewing in anger.

  他指着计划书狠狠地说道:下次想作什么改动前,先征求一下我的意见。然后转身走了,留下我一个人在那里生闷气。

  How dare he treat me like that, I thought. I had changed one long sentence, and corrected grammar, something I thought I was paid to do.

  他怎么能这样对我!我想,我只是改了一个长句,更正了语法错误,但这都是我的分内之事啊。

  It’s not that I hadn’t been warned. The other woman who had worked my job before me called Jack names I couldn’t repeat. One coworker took me aside the first day. "He’s personally responsible for two different secretaries leaving the firm," she whispered.

  其实也有人提醒过我,上一任在我这个职位上工作的女士就曾大骂过他。我第一天上班时,就有同事把我拉到一旁小声说:已有两个秘书因为他而辞职了。

  As the weeks went by, I grew to despise Jack. It was against everything I believed in, turning the other cheek and loving your enemies. But Jack quickly slapped a verbal insult on any cheek turned his way. I prayed about, but to be honest, I wanted to put Jack in his place, not love him.

  几周后,我逐渐有些鄙视杰克了,而这又有悖于我的信条——别人打你左脸,右脸也转过去让他打;爱自己的敌人。但无论怎么做,总会挨杰克的骂。说真的,我很想灭灭他的嚣张气焰,而不是去爱他。我还为此默默祈祷过。

  One day another of his episodes left me in tears. I stormed into his office, prepared to lose my job if needed, but not before I let the man know how I felt. I opened the door and Jack glanced up. “What?” he said abruptly.

  一天,因为一件事,我又被他气哭了。我冲进他的办公室,准备在被炒鱿鱼前让他知道我的感受。我推开门,杰克抬头看了我一眼。有事吗?”他突然说道。

  Suddenly I knew what I had to do. After all, he deserved it.

  我猛地意识到该怎么做了。毕竟,他罪有应得。

  I sat across from him, “Jack, the way you’ve been treating me is wrong. I’ve never had anyone speak to me that way. As a professional, it’s wrong, and it's wrong for me to allow it to continue."

  我在他对面坐下,说:杰克,你对待我的方式很有问题。还从没有人像你那样对我说话。作为一个职业人士,你这么做很愚蠢,而如果我继续让事情这么下去,那就时我的错了。””

  Jack snickered nervously and leaned back in his chair. I closed my eyes briefly. God help me, I prayed.

  杰克不安地笑了笑,向后靠靠。我闭了一下眼睛,祈祷着,希望上帝能帮帮我。

  “I want to make you a promise. I will be a friend,” I said. “I will treat you as you deserve to be treated, with respect and kindness. You deserve that. Everybody does.” I slipped out of the chair and closed the door behind me.

  我保证,可以成为你的朋友。你是我的上司,我自然会尊敬你,礼貌待你,这是我应做的。每个人都应得到如此礼遇。我说着便起身离开,把门关上了。

  Jack avoided me the rest of the week. Proposals, specs, and letters appeared on my desk while I was at lunch, and my corrected versions were not seen again. I brought cookies to the office one day and left a batch on his desk. Another day I left a note. “Hope your day is going great,” it read.

  那个星期余下的几天,杰克一直躲着我。他总趁我吃午饭时,把计划书、技术说明和信件放在我桌上,并且,我修改过的文件不再被打回来。一天,我买了些饼干去办公室,顺便在杰克桌上留了一包。第二天,我又留了一张字条,在上面写道:祝你今天一切顺利。

  Over the next few weeks, Jack reappeared. He was reserved, but there were no other episodes. Coworkers cornered me in the break room. “Guess you got to Jack,” they said. “You must have told him off good.”

  接下来的几个星期,杰克不再躲避我了,但沉默了许多,办公室里再也没发生不愉快的事情。于是,同事们在休息室把我团团围了起来。听说杰克被你镇住了,他们说,你肯定大骂了他一顿。

  I shook my head. “Jack and I are becoming friends,” I said in faith. I refused to talk about him. Every time I saw Jack in the hall, I smiled at him. After all, that’s what friends do.

  我摇了摇头,一字一顿地说:我们会成为朋友。我根本不想提起杰克,每次在大厅看见他时,我总冲他微笑。毕竟,朋友就该这样。

  One year after our "talk," I discovered I had breast cancer. I was thirty-two, the mother of three beautiful young children, and scared. The cancer had metastasized to my lymph nodes and the statistics were not great for long-term survival. After surgery, I visited with friends and loved ones who tried to find the right words to say. No one knew what to say, and many said the wrong things. Others wept, and I tried to encourage them. I clung to hope.

  一年后,我32岁,是三个漂亮孩子的母亲,但我被确诊为乳腺癌,这让我极端恐惧。癌细胞已经扩散到我的淋巴腺。从统计数据来看,我的时间不多了。手术后,我拜访了亲朋好友,他们尽量宽慰我,都不知道说些什么好,有些人反而说错了话,另外一些人则为我难过,还得我去安慰他们。我始终没有放弃希望。

  The last day of my hospital stay, the door opened and Jack stood awkwardly under the threshold. I waved him in with a smile. He walked over to my bed and without a word placed a bundle beside me. Inside the package lay several bulbs.

  就在我出院的前一天,病房门开了。是杰克,他尴尬地站在门口。我微笑着招呼他进来,他走到我床边,默默地把一包东西放在我旁边,那里边是几个球茎。

  Tulips, he said.

  这是郁金香。他说。

  I smiled, not understanding.

  我笑着,不明白他的用意。

  He cleared his throat. "If you plant them when you get home, they’ll come up next spring." He shuffled his feet. "I just wanted you to know that I think you’ll be there to see them when they come up."

  他清了清嗓子,回家后把它们种下,到明年春天就长出来了。他挪挪脚,我希望你知道,你一定看得到它们发芽开花。

  Tears clouded my eyes and I reached out my hand. "Thank you," I whispered.

  我泪眼朦胧地伸出手。

  Jack grasped my hand and gruffly replied, "You’re welcome. You can’t see it now, but next spring you’ll see the colors I picked out for you. " He turned and left without another word.

  谢谢你。我低声说。杰克抓住我的手,生硬地答道:不必客气。到明年长出来后,你就能看到我为你挑的是什么颜色的郁金香了。之后,他没说一句话便转身离开了。

  I have watched those red-and-white striped tulips push their way through the soil every spring for over ten years now.. In fact, this September the doctor will declare me cured. I’ve seen my children graduate from high school and enter college.

  转眼间,十多年过去了,每年春天,我都会看着这些红白相间的郁金香破土而出。事实上,今年九月,医生已宣布我痊愈了。我也看着孩子们高中毕业,进入大学。

  In a moment when I prayed for just the right word, a man with very few words said all the right things.

  在那绝望的时刻,我祈求他人的安慰,而这个男人寥寥数语,却情真意切,温暖着我脆弱的心。

  After all, that’s what friends do.

  毕竟,朋友之间就该这么做。

 

 

 

 

 

 

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